Tuesday, May 23, 2017

To many Americans, Europe is all about romance.  I know that after many years of travel in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, my dreaming images of Europe have a lot in common with a Wagner opera scene.  I think of towering pinnacles of rock, wreathed in mist, with half ruined castles perched on top.  Below, the Rhine flows by flaked with silver sparkles.   Square sailed wooden boats sail past laden with knights and ladies heading to exotic destinations or just up to Cologne with its lacy stone cathedral looming over the river.
There is romance in Stonehenge and the ghosts of prehistoric rituals.  The Hunchback of Notre Dame defines our images of Medieval Paris.  Of course nothing can compete with the ghosts that seem to crowd the Colosseum and the Appian Way with about the longest recorded history in Europe.
Somehow, I do not think that our relatives think in those terms about the Aeolian/Eolian islands.  We think of farmers cultivating and pruning the grapes.  The merchants' wives baking hard tack for trading voyages in the outdoor ovens of plain white cube houses.  Below the houses are storage places where it was cool enough for my great-great aunts to weave linen in the shadows.  The islands are lovely....beautiful blue vistas, and Salina, at least is a sea of green and yellow, but do they have the romantic appeal that other Italians may see in their homelands. 
In fact, the islands along with Sicily, have some of the longest and most romantic and troubled histories of any part of Europe.  Lipari has its castle on the promontory above the beach, a setting for its towered cathedral smack in the middle.  There is a vast cemetery dating back to Greek times that has yielded up many sarcophagi and grave goods on a par with any site in the central Mediterranean.  The castle and town suffered a great and brutal Pirate attack that virtually wiped out the town and enslaved the populace. 
Obsidian has been mined and traded all through the prehistoric world. Pottery also dates to these times, found all around the islands in many classic forms and decorations.
The islands, like Sicily have been the crossroads of a dozen invading and trading cultures...Jews, Greeks, Medieval Germans. Romans, Arabs, Spaniards, and French.  All of these cultures have left their marks on our bloodlines, our rural arts, our diets and our personalities. 
Romance just percolates through the islands and our history.  and I sometimes find myself dreaming of farmers and tradesmen trooping into the castle and battling off the pirates and also the gently arts of husbandry practiced generation after generation in their sundrenched villages.
They certainly lived with deprivation in their isolated and comparatively poor islands, not to mentioned the cloud wreathed volcanoes spewing out occasional destruction.  The people who left the islands sometimes thought of their home as a sort of "armpit" of the earth, but they left in a time when they knew that there was more available elsewhere and longed for an easier life, but their parents and grandparents also knew the islands and a source of great natural generosity and fertility.  Salina particularly was a gift to her people, green, fertile, blessed with both beauty and plenty, but when the virus hit the vines and wiped out the prosperity they had come to enjoy, the island became a prison for many.
Still, now that people have prospered and convenient transportation has made it easier to live in the beautiful islands, people have started coming for the wine, the scuba, the romantic volcanoes and the wonderful weather(most months). 

Friday, May 5, 2017

Why the New Blog?

I have had a few complaints about this but I am sure that all the mountains of information I have been uploading into the Cafarella-Cincotta site make it a little difficult to navigate and to understand the purpose of the site.
Originally I wanted the site:  http://cincotta-cafarella.blogspot.com to do nothing but show off photographs of family members. Secondly, I wanted the site: http://cafarella-cincotta.blogspot.com to be all about family stories. 
Recently, however, I have been purchasing many maps, photos, antique prints, and have been uploading island information along with them.  This is a bit of a departure from the original intent, so I thought I might as well return that site to its original format and move all the more general island and population stories and images here.  So This will be my task for a while, first purging the old site of these intrusions and moving them here.

This is just the core map of the family tree that I have been working on for a number of years now.  John Cafarella, Son of Joseph Gaetano Cafarella(The Marine) did the original Power Point central portion, but now this family tree is about three feet by three feet, and does not include my father's side at all.  Eventually, I will transfer all this to a new tree that will make more sense and look a bit less like a spaghetti bowl, though many of us really like spaghetti!!!

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

A series of beautiful photos of the island

Go to the following link for some beautiful photos of the island of Salina from all sides. It really gives you a good idea of the topography. Under view more photos at the lower right, the final photo will show you a great direct view of Malfa and Capo Faro at the left. This is especially good for memebers of my central family as that is the area where most of the immediate family is from.


You may have to type the entire address into the address bar at the top of your page, copy and paste into any of the search bars yeilds poor results at best.

You might try the search at the top of the page for pictures of the other islands. These are for sale as downloads or prints if you want a copy. I have no affiliation to this site, I just think it is beautiful.

Deep Time

Geologists to some extent but more so Physicists and Astronomers have a concept called DEEP TIME.  They are thinking not in terms of thousands of years, that are fairly easy for us to grasp, or in terms of even millions of years.  They think about billions of years, even 13 billion or more.
I can say that I understand the period of time they are talking about, but when it comes right down to it; I think that it is an impossible idea to grasp for any of us. 
The Big Bang, the formation of the sun and all of its planets, all of these concepts are why we have a god in our minds.  They are concepts beyond our understanding.  Don't believe anyone who says they do understand it.
We, as amateur Genealogists, have our own concept of Deep Time.
Some of us, young people, cannot even imagine a time without computers, without planes, or cars.  The idea of a world war in our past is only an abstract concept that some of us just take on faith, because we cannot even understand the period of time that has passed since then.
I do not know about you, but I can easily imagine Grammie's father putting out to sea in a far too small boat with a triangular sail.... and ending up in Portugal.  Of course I know he mostly did short hops around the Thyrennian, but that does not stop my imagining :Portugal.
He wears a knit stocking cap, not unlike what we sometimes wear today in the winter. 
He is eating the hard tack and dried salted fish that his wife packed in barrels for him.  Table wines and water are stored in demijohns for him to drink, and of course there are raisins. 
If he tires of the dried food he can always fish for fresh over the side. 
There are lemons in big baskets to keep scurvy away and figs to keep his bowels in order.  There is also a jar of olives, that he put up in salt brine from the salt pans of Salina, along with her, to munch on along with the fresh bread and Feta like cheese that will last a few days on his trip before he will be restricted to the preserved foods.
Beyond that, I can envision my ancestors with long hose and Codpieces below short coats cinched tight at the waist.  I see them too in long heavy robes of silk and velvet in some branches, and others in homespun wool, all keeping warm in the little ice age when even in Sicily it was chilly enough to wear such things in part of the summer.
I can see our ancestors and some that were almost our ancestors dreading the coming of the plagues that would kill almost half of them in the 13 and 14 hundreds.  Of course, I can just see ancestors with our present day body types in shoes with long pointed toes.  The toes were so long that they had to tie the pointed ends to their knees to keep from tripping over them.
I can see the Cafarellas coming to Italy by sea from Constantinople when peace in the empire meant that there was little work for military men.  In Italy the turmoil of all the little city states and the constant territory envy of the French and Germans, and the Pope defending against them, kept them busy along with Crusading.
Here, my imagination gives out on the Italian side.  Not because I do not believe that they were this or that...rich or poor, master or servant, lord or serf;  I just don't see them farther back.
The British side I see in their manor houses in Shropshire, battling the Welsh along the border.  I see them knowing the king personally, and paying homage to their overlords who in turn payed homage to the king.
I see the Corbet branch of the family coming over with William the Conqueror from Normandy, a part of Normandy in the country not far from Paris.
I see them too, with axes in their hands sailing up the Seine and other rivers from their homeland in Denmark, with a large, black  raven on helmet and shield. 
There, the images fade. 
I cannot even imagine how or where they lived in Denmark, and for some reason I cannot envision the same events that happened in other branches of the English and Norman family that became the Mitchells and Jones' from New Brunswick.
But what about Deep Time for us ordinary folk. 
I have been rereading an old favorite of mine called "Sarum"  by Edward Rutherfurd.
It may be hard to lay your hands on outside the thrift shops and the library, but it it well worth the read and the effort to find.  It is giving me(especially now that I have a better handle on my English side) a feeling of connection to the past that I never had before.
I take that back.
There was one night...in the 1980s I think, when Halley's comet was due.  I saw it and was very pleased to have done so, but I was outside in Wiscasset, in the middle of the street, looking at another comet that was passing near that time.  I do not remember its name.
I looked up at it over my neighbor's roof.  I stood there a little too long with my face pointing up.  Perhaps I was a bit dizzy as a result, but I suddenly felt like I was on a moving sphere.  I felt the Earth moving below my feet, and the moving in sync with the comet, and the moon and everything else.  The feeling of connection of being a part of it all flooded over me and I stood there in the middle of the street in tears   Perhaps this is what it was like a couple of thousand years ago to have a religious revelation.  But just that one night...I felt like I was part of something greater and deeper in time that I can rationally imagine.  It sounds a little crazy, but there it is. 
I have never felt that way again.
I go to my sister's house in the woods in Maine.  We look up at the stars so thick that you can almost see the star maps by them.  I hope it will happen again...But it doesn't.
I imagine people the first time they see their child's face would feel a bit like that.  I feel a deeper connection to all of you...family, and almost family, because I understand a little of OUR FAMILIES' DEEP TIME.

So what is deep time in human terms?  I can easily speculate on the origins of my British Isles family in deep time.  On one side they were stone and bronze age hunters on the tundras of northern Britain, much like in the book Sarum.  they had originated in central Europe and in turn the middle east as discussed later. But, when the Romans arrived, they were driven into the mountains of Wales and into Ireland by a people who had little respect for religions other than their own and for any peoples who resisted their will.
The Normans who later replaced the Germanic invaders(Angles Saxons and Jutes), their own cousins in fact, came from France, then in turn from Denmark and prior to that the Steppes of Russia or the "STAN" republics of the former Soviet Union.  They had, prior to that, migrated from the northern reaches of the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East(many thousands of years before the Bible, though probably not before some of the stories from the Bible), and before that the North Eastern quarter of Africa.
The Italian side was probably all over the map.  They were of course also from the "STANS" and the Middle East, but they were living at the Conquest Crossroads of the world.  Every Barbarian newly arrived from the Steppes or Hungary, Every Arab, every renegade religious sect, the Greeks and Romans, the pirates from Greece and North Africa and every Medieval nation of the Old World tried to gain a foothold in Italy and in Sicily particularly.
We cannot truly trace our families to any one group with certainty.  We can speculate that we are related to the Romans.  It would seem to make sense, but how many tribes and nations traipsed across Italy in the last 1500 years to replace existing populations with their own kind, and their own seed.
Some of these groups married local boys and girls, but many replaced the local population...So who are we really?

The only real answer to our Italian Deep Time questions will be DNA testing.  This is something I hope to do with my family someday...when I can afford it.  This is the only hope of us understanding who we are.

  Ultimately, we are all Africans, most recently, probably from the northeast of the continent(Perhaps Ethiopia or Somalia, certainly not far from the Great Rift Valley, but ultimately from central or southern regions of the continent.  This is our collective EDEN...More of a jungle or Savanna than a garden really, and there were no apples there, allegorical or otherwise.

Savoy Kings of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II became king upon the unification of Italy, largely accomplished by Garibaldi. He became king on March 17, 1861.  Prior to that he was the Duke of Savoy, then King of Sardinia.  He was a son of Maria Theresa of Austria.  He married his cousin, Adelheid Habsburg of Austria(a cousin, below)  He died on January 9, 1878.
Maria Adelaide.jpg
Umberto I (one of eight children) became king upon the death of his father on January 9, 1878 and died on July 29th 1900 as the result of a second assassination attempt by Anarchists who were angry with his Ultra-Conservative policies and his support of a massacre of rioters in Milan.  The riots were in response to famine and rising bread prices in the country.  His Queen Consort was Margherita of Savoy.(below)(Margherita Pizza)
Queen Margharitha di Savoia.jpg
Victor Emmanuel II became king on July 29th 1900 and died on December 28th 1947.  He abdicated in favor of his son on May 9th 1946 after his embarrassing association with the Fascists during Mussolini's rule of the country.  Married to Elena of Montenegro(below), their daughter Mafalda died in Buchenwald concentration camp after the king arrested Mussolini and they fled to Egypt to exile.  Elena is best remembered for her involvement in rescue efforts and nursing following the Great Earthquake in Messina in 1908.
File:Queen Elena of Italy.jpg

Umberto II became king upon the abdication of his father on May 9th 1946.  He was deposed on June 12th 1946.  As Italy became a republic all titles were no longer valid.  He died on March 18th 1983.  Umberto and his queen Maria Jose of Belgium held their title for 35 days before the referendum to abolish the monarchy removed them from power.  They were referred to as the May king and the May queen.   They separated and did not live together after this.  There were reports that Umberto was Homosexual.  He remained in exile in Portugal for the rest of his life.   A good portrait of Maria Jose(below) is not available from Wikipedia, but a search of her name will show you a number of them.  


Vittorio Emanuele, disputed Duke of Savoy and honorifically called Prince of Naples.
This portrait is in front of his father's portrait,  Though exiled and living in Geneva most of his life, he and his family were allowed to return to Italy after formally renouncing titles and renouncing possessions in Italy.  He has been a constant embarrassment, arrested for wrongful death, corruption etc., his son has distanced himself from him.  Born February 13th 1937.   Married to Maria Ridolfi-Doria.  Do a name search to see portraits of her.
  This is Emanuele Filiberto, prince of Venice and Piedmont.  He is frequently on television and is a financial wizard working in Switzerland.  His status is still being debated in the Italian courts against the claims of the Duke of Aosta.  This image is from a free site listed in a search from Wikipedia.  If it does not belong here, I urge the owner to contact me immediately.  This is simply an
 informational blog and I will happily remove the image.
He is married to Clotilde Courau(below), a French actress.
Clotilde Courau Cannes 2010.jpg

Thanks to Wikipedia for most of the images.  Wikipedia is a very worthwhile organization.  Anyone with good knowledge or research skills on a subject of interest to the public should consider joining Wikipedia and contributing information or editorial skills to it.  Also, consider financial gifts to Wikipedia to help continue its free status.

Italy, through much of its history was not a single nation.  Papal states, with territory larger or smaller in different periods, duchies, small republics, etc. characterized the peninsula for most of its history.  The fact that Italy is quite mountainous contributed to the isolation of one region from another.  There were constant squabbles between these tiny "countries" which left the entire area in nearly constant turmoil.  Outside countries also tried to grab off pieces of the peninsula, or the entire area.  France tried to take it over, Austria's Hapsburgs had territory or alliances that made them virtual rulers of large areas.  Grumbling over the power of the popes encouraged takeover attempts over and over again. 
Through many hundreds of years, the south was more stable with Naples and the southern regions forming a country, Sicily forming another, and the two together as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, changing hands on occasion from French and Spanish etc.
It was not until the first half of the 19th century that a serious attempt to unify the peninsula began.  After the seeds of  a nation were cobbled together in the north,  Garibaldi started in Marsala, Sicily with his red shirt troops and virtually swept through the country from the south, as the proto-nation pushed south to meet him, putting together a united kingdom of Italy for Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy and Sardinia to rule in 1860.  The papal states fell, leaving only Rome of his domains still in the pope's hands.  The Nation of Italy was officially proclaimed.  Venice and the northeast were added in 1866, and by 1871 Rome finally fell and became the capital.   By treaty, Vatican city became the city state that it is today.   More territory in the north east was added after the first world war.  It is strange to think that the major part of the country was formed only 17 years before Grammie was born, and only really completed when she was in her thirties.  It was abolished by the time she was fifty....Three of the four kings.... two world wars a dozen republican governments, all within her lifetime

Link to the Rulers of Sicily


Island Names and Arrival Dates.

Thanks Armando D'Ambra for supplying this.

Family Names
These are the names of families that lived in Lipari . The information comes from the book: "Citta Di Lipari" by Pietro Campis -

1133 - Filippo di Lipari

1246 - Amico D'Aldineri, Raimondo di Baldo, Ruggiero di Federico, Giovanni Di Pietro, Pietro d'Orbea, Giovanni Monoche`.

1261 - Benedetto di Baldo, Giovanni Bruno, Giovanni de Ota, Ansaudo, Luca Pagano de Andriocta, Nicolo` de Fulcone, Giovanni de Coci.

c. 1300 - Martuccio or Bartuzzo or Mattuzzo? Comito

1318 - Roberto, Nicalao, Giovanni, all with the words "de Lipparo" after the name designating place of residence.

1398 - Mano Cocchiano, Amico deLuciano, Antonio di Salvo, Ambrogio Ysaac

The following lived in the territory of the diocese (Patti, Milazzo, Librizzi, Naso etc) but for various reasons are also found to have something to do with Lipari:

1095 - Willelmus Pontius

1117 - Gulielmus Franzes, Nicetas Gallus

1123 - Walcolinus

1131 and in 1148 - these names appear:

Changemis, Costas, Chipparos, Farandas, Leo Caruuni, Leo Lamaris, Leo tu(=di_Paschali, Maimunis Ihaccas, Nicolaos Arcudi, Petros Diuolas, Uonichis, Vasilis tu Fargali

1191 - Nicolaus Thesaurarius, Robertus Spanus, Johannes Cangemus

1195 Willelmus Caballarius

1196 - Ricius

1198 - Guiglelmus filius Jacolini de Milacio

1202 - domina Corbina

1249 - Petrus Spatarius, Amicus de Presi, Jaconus Leo , Nicolaus de Maymon, Theodorus Barensis

1252 - Johannes de Marturano, Leo Syracusanus

1254 - Aldericus Famularus civis Pactarum

1261 - Frederico de Bonofilio

1262 - Petrus de Silvestro, Perronus Mancusius, Nicolaus Bos

1263 - Rusticus de Bonicho

1265 - Jardinus de Castello

1276 - Johannes de Matina, Johannes Copsocrea, Riccardus Pichulus, Jacobus Amalfitanus

The names have undergone changes through the ages. How many can you identify?

15th to the first half of the 16th century, these are the names that have been found:

Barberi, Ballacera, Bonfiglio, Bonica, Bosi, Brazzano, Calerari, Camagna, Capizzano, Carnetta, Casella, Cirino, comito, Coppola, Cremonese, Damiani, D'Anza, DeFranco, De Paula, De Protho, De Rubino, Di Blasi, DiFalco, DoFogie, Falanga, Gallecchi, Gauteri, Gervasio, Graffeo, LaGaroza or Carrozza, Lo Campo, Lo Nobile, Majorca, Mansoli, Marazzita, Mercurella, Montelione, Muntanaro, Muni, Pampina, Papa, Perea, Puntulieri, Quagliarella, Recupitta, Russo or Rossi, Sacco, Salvati, Sarno, Schisano, Stilpa, Tabiano, Trovatino, Voij.

In the year 1544 and 1618 these names were found:

Aduino, Aloe, Amendola, Angiluni, Arcondia, Ardizuni, Artesi, Baldassaro, Basili, Bellacera, Bellingeri, (Beninato), Benincasa, Bertuli, Bonaccursu, Boaja, Bonfiglio, Bonica, Brazzano, Bruno, Buzzanca (Cafarella), Caivano, Caizza, Calderaro, Camagna, Campagna, Canali, Capicchiano, Cappadoro, Caputo, Carnivali, Carrozza, Caruso, Cassera`, Castellano, Catalano, Catarella, Cavaleri, Cazzetta, Cesario, Chille`, (Cincotta), Ciraulo, Cirino, Citrolo, Colonna, Comito, Conti, Coppula, Corso, Costa, Costanzo, Craparo, Criscillo, Cristo`, Crivelli, Culia, Cullosi, Currao, Curseri, Cusantino, (Cusulito), Cusumanu, D'Acquaro, D'Agusta, D'Amato, D'Ambra, D'Ambrosio, D'Andria, Danile or Danieli, D'Antonio, D'Arena, D'arrigo, (De Leo Delfino), Della Chiesa Delorenzo, DeRebus, DeRunis, Diana, Di Franco, DiGiuanni, DiLacqua, DiLosa, DiLuca, DiMatina, DiMora, DiMuni, DiMunti DiNaso, DiNavi, (DiNeri), DiPascali, Di Paula, DiSalvo, Di Stefano, DiVita, Durante, D'Urso, Falanga, Famularo, Faraci, Favolaro, Ferrante, Ferro, Ficarra, Fiorentino, Franza, Furnari, Galletta, Gallo, Gallotta, Galtieri, Gemmola, Gentile, Genuesi, Giaquinto, Giorgi, Giuliano, Graffeo, Granata, Grasso, Graziano, Greco, Guadagno, Guarino, Imbesi, Istraeli, Jueli, LaBella, La Cava, La Funcia, La Mantia, Lamari, Lambrosa, Lanza, La Torre, Lauricella, la Vittoria, (Lazzaro), Liardo, Liccardo, or Licciardo, Liotta, Liuzzi, Lo Bianco, Lo Campo, Lo Chirico, Lo Curcio, Lo Galbo, Lo Greco, Lo Jacono, Lo Judice, Lombardo, Lo Monaco, Longo, Lo Picculu, Lo Sacco, Lo Scavo, Macri`, Majetta, Majurana, Majuri or Maggiuri, Manfre`, Maniace, Mannarano, Manello, Mansole, Marazita, Marcetta, Marino, Martino, Marullo, Medici, (Megna), Mercurella, Merlino, Messina, Mirabile, Misceli or Miceli, Moleti, Monteleone, Morabito, Mule`, Muntanaro, Musciarella or Muscarella, Natoli, Orlando, Ortese, Pagano, (Paijno), Palamara or Calamara, (Palisi), Pampino, Pannitteri, Pap, Parisi, Pascalello, Pasqua, Pavone Pellegrino, Picuni, Piluso, Pirera, Policastro, Portelli, Puglisi, Pulito, Raffa, Rfaffello, (Re), Rijtano or Riggitano, Ristuccia, Rizzo Romano, Ruffo, Ruggiero, Sciacca, Sciacchitano, Scilibbo~, Scimone, Scularici, Scularito, Sidoti, Siracusa, Spano`, Spataro, Spetiale, Spinella, Stancagiano, Stella, Sulfaro, Summa, Talamo, Taranto, Tartaro, Tauro, Terranova, Tesorero, Todaro, Trava, Trovatino, Turcarello, Uono, Urso, Vaccaro, Vintrici, Virgona, Vitagliano, Vitali, Viviano or Biviano, Voij, Vopa, Zahami, Zaija, Zanca, Zummo.

OK - now we have some names with Spanish or Portuguese lineage: Alconada, Almidoves, Arvodovola, Bailar, Basches, Baylon, Brea, Caravaxial, Conzales, Cubeta, D'Acugna, D'Almidavar, D'Alonzo, D'Aranges, De Paredos, Desqueto, De Xeda, Dies, Ernandes, Errera, Foardo or Fuardo, Garxia, Gomes, Hurtado, Ilares, La Noara, Lexona, Loarea, Lopes, Losada, majorca, Mancanas, Martines, Mendozza, Morales, Panay, Panaxi, Peres, Pixita` or Piscita`, Plado, Ramundo, Rodriques, Roes, Sallazar, Samore`, Sandoval, Uxeda, Vaglies, (Vasquez), Vecha, Vidal, Vivanco or Bivanco, Ximenes,

The above family were for the most part officials and military personnel - they were considered a different caste of people and for the most part kept apart from the islanders.

1618 - 1699 - Adornato, Arbiano or Albiano, Arico`, Baglio, Barnao, Barnava, Barrili, Biscotto, Bongiorno, Bono, Butta, Caravagli, Carbone, Casaceli, Casamento, D'Alia, (DiFina), Di Muro, Ferrazzano, Florio or Frolio, Fonti, Fraumeni, Galluppi, Giuffrida, Giunta, Giurdano, Iraci, La Macchia, La Rosa, Le Donni, Lucchesi, Mangano, Marchese, Marturano, Matarazzo, Mazza, Mazzolo, Merenda, Merrino, Molica, Monizio, Mursit, Muschera`, Ortesia, Pinzuni, Pittari, Pittorinio, Randazzo, Rando, Ravesi, Ricco, Rivello, Sappietro, Scattarecia, Schibbeci, Sciarrone, Scolaro, Sesta, Spicchiato, Tricoli, Trimoli, Virdichizzi or Pirdichizzi, Zojno or Zijno.

Between 1700 to 1750: Baraona, Caravella, Catafo, Coma, (D'Anieri), Di Maria, Favorito, Ferlazzo Fumia, Giardina, Lauria, LoCascio, Marraffa, martello, Muleta, Mursillo, Palmisano, Vivola.

Second half of the 18th Century: D'Albora, DeMauro, DiBenedetto, Favazza, Fenech, Ferrara, Giufre`, Curtisi or Cortisi, Mancuso, Mararo, Pitruzzo, Profilio, Salmieri, Sciarrone, Sipione, Tripi, Villanti.

During this period of time are registered many illigitimate children. A notation would be placed by the mother's name "filius Ecclesiae" (Child of the Church. Also they would be referred to by the place of birth of the mother or from where the family originally came. Some of these names are Nasitanu, Pattisanu, Calavrisi, etc. (the last two are easy from Patti and from Calabria - the first one could be from Naxos?) This practice was due to the fact that the family had not yet established or decide on fixed last name.

Did you find your last name .... don't forget that the names have changed with the passing of the years...but you may still be able to identify yours.